ARCA PEREMPUAN DAN ARCA LAKI-LAKI PADA KELOMPOK ARCA MEGALITIK PASEMAH, SUMATERA SELATAN: PERPESPEKTIF GENDER

Rr. Triwurjani

Abstract


Pasemah plateau in South Sumatra has a distribution of megalithic statues of various shapes. These statues depict an activity between people in a social group. Human statues differentiated by gender and age, the statues of female and male, along with the children. The difference of depictions of female and male statues are discussed from the perspective of gender. This study aims to identify and understand gender relations between female and male in Pasemah megalithic culture. Results of the research is a description of the role in social life of female and male depictions in the form of megalithic statues. This study shows the tendency of gender inequality in females role.

Dataran tinggi Pasemah di Sumatra Selatan memiliki sebaran arca megalitik dengan berbagai bentuk. Arca-arca ini menggambarkan suatu aktivitas antar manusia dalam suatu kelompok sosial. Arca manusia dibedakan berdasarkan jenis kelamin dan usianya, yaitu arca perempuan dan laki-laki, bersama dengan anak-anak. Perbedaan penggambaran arca perempuan dan lakilaki tersebut dibahas dari sudut pandang gender dalam penelitian ini. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan memahami relasi gender antara perempuan dan laki-laki dalam budaya megalitik Pasemah. Hasil penelitian berupa deskripsi peran dari penggambaran arca perempuan dan laki-laki di dalam kehidupan sosialnya. Penelitian ini menunjukkan adanya kecenderungan ketidaksetaraan gender dalam representasi penggambaran peran dari arca perempuan.


Keywords


Arca Perempuan, Arca Laki-Laki, Megalitik, Pasemah, Gender.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bender, Barbara. 1975. Farming in Prehistory from Hunter-gathered to food producer. New York: St. Martins Press.

Bhasin, Kamla 2003. Memahami Gender. Jakarta: Teplok Press.

Conkey, M. dan J. Spector. 1984. Archaeology and the study of gender. Dalam Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 7, disunting oleh M. Schiffer, 1-38. New York: Academic Press.

Engels, F. 1970. The Origin of Family Private Property, and The State. New York: International Publisher Company.

Fakih, Mansour. 2003. Analisis Gender dan Transformasi Sosial. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Geldern, von Heine. 1945. Studies on Megalith, Primitive Stone Sculpture and Rock Graves. Dalam Prehistoric Research in The Netherlands Indies: Science and Scientist in the Netherlands Indies. New York: Board for Netherlands Indies, Surinam, and Curacao.

Gero, Joan dan Margaret Conkey. 1991. Engendering Archaeology. Massachussets: Basil Blackwell Inc.

Hodder, Ian. 1986. Reading The Past, Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology. Cambridge: University Press.

Hoop. A.N.J Th Van der. 1932. Megalithic Remain in South Sumatra. Diterjemahkan oleh William Shirlaw W.J. Netherland: Thieme et Cie.

Johnson, Matthew. 2000. Archaeology and Gender. Dalam Archaeological Theory: An introduction. UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Koentjaraningrat. 1992. Beberapa Pokok Antropologi Sosial. Jakarta: Dian Rakyat.

Moore, Henrietta L. 1990. Feminism and Anthropology. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Shanks, Michael dan Ian Hodder. 1997. Processual, Postprocessual and Interpretive Arcaheology. Dalam Interpreting Archaeology: Finding Meaning in The Past, 3-28. London: Routdledge.

Soejono, R.P. 2008. Zaman Prasejarah di Indonesia. Jilid I dari Sejarah Nasional Indonesia. Edisi pemutakhiran. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Triwurjani, Rr. 2012. Penelitian Arkeologi Gender pada Komunitas Pendukung Budaya Megalitik Pasemah. Pagar Alam dan Kabupaten Lahat, Sumatera Selatan. Laporan Penelitian Arkeologi, Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Arkeologi Nasional, Jakarta.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/fa.v28i1.78

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.