ANALISIS KANDUNGAN FLUORINE (F) DI DALAM FOSIL TULANG DAN GIGI: KASUS DARI GUA PAWON, SANGIRAN, DAN KALITIDU

Johan Arif, Darwin Siregar

Abstract


Bones will undergo diagenesis process when buried in soil which will decrease organic content and increase inorganic content coming from outside, such as F (fluorine). This research discusses about F (fluorine) content in fossilized bones and teeth coming from Pawon Cave in West Java, Sangiran in Central Java, and Kalitidu in East Java, which are in situ and not in situ. The content of F (fluorine) in fossilized bones and teeth can be used to determine their origin which are not in situ and lacking of stratigraphy information. The result of this research can be described as follows. F (fluorine) content in materials coming from Pawon Cave are varied. Materials coming from Kalitidu which are in situ have relatively the same F (fluorine) content, while material which is not in situ has the highest F (fluorine) content. Materials coming from Sangiran have different relation between F (fluorine) content and formation age, compared to materials coming from Pawon Cave and Kalitidu, that is the lesser the content of F (fluorine), the older the age of material. One of the fossilized materials, namely the molar of Homo erectus (JA-41), is the youngest tooth fossil of Homo erectus ever found in Sangiran.

 

Tulang akan mengalami proses diagenesa ketika terkubur dalam tanah yang menyebabkan unsur organik makin berkurang dan unsur anorganik makin bertambah kadarnya karena masuknya unsur kimia anorganik dari luar, salah satunya adalah unsur F (fluorine). Penelitian ini membahas tentang kandungan F (fluorine) pada fosil-fosil tulang dan gigi yang bersifat insitu dan tidak insitu yang berasal dari Gua Pawon di Jawa Barat, Sangiran di Jawa Tengah, dan Kalitidu di Jawa Timur. Kandungan F (fluorine) pada fosil tulang dan gigi dapat digunakan untuk menentukan sumber asal fosil yang berstatus tidak insitu dan tidak diketahui kedudukan stratigrafinya. Hasil yang diperoleh adalah material yang berasal dari Gua Pawon mempunyai kadar F (fluorine) yang bervariasi. Material fosil dari Kalitidu yang berstatus insitu mempunyai kadar F (fluorine) yang relatif sama, sedangkan material fosil yang berstatus tidak insitu mempunyai kadar F (fluorine) paling tinggi. Material fosil dari Sangiran memiliki hubungan kandungan F (fluorine) dengan usia formasi yang berbeda dengan Gua Pawon dan Kalitidu, yaitu semakin kecil kadar F (fluorine) pada fosil tulang dan gigi, maka semakin tua umur fosil. Salah satu material fosil, yaitu gigi geraham Homo erectus (JA-41), merupakan fosil gigi Homo erectus termuda yang pernah ditemukan di Sangiran.

 


Keywords


Metode Fluorine, Fosil, Subfosil, Insitu, Gua Pawon, Sangiran, Kalitidu.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arif, J., H. Baba, M.E. Suparka, Y. Zaim, dan T. Setoguchi. 2001. “Preliminary Study of Homo Erectus Skull IX (Tjg-1993.05) from Sangiran, Central Java, Indonesia.” Bulletin of Natural Science Museum Series D: Anthropology 27:1-17.

Arif, J., L. Yondri, dan R. Kapid. 2009. “Perbandingan Ukuran Gigi Molar Manusia Pawon dengan Manusia Mesolitik, Neolitik, dan Manusia Sekarang: Studi Pendahuluan.” Dalam Arkeologi: Manusia-Ruang-Aktivitas, disunting oleh Mahirta, 32-42. Jatinangor: Alqaprint.

Itihara, H., D. Kadar, dan N. Watanabe. 1985. “Concluding remarks.” Dalam Quaternary Geology of The Hominid Fossils Bearing Formations in Java, disunting oleh N. Watanabe dan D. Kadar, 367-378. Geological Research and Development Centre, Special Publication No. 4.

Itihara, M., N. Watanabe, D. Kadar, dan H. Kumai. 1994. “Quaternary Stratigraphy of The Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations in The Sangiran Area, Central Java.” Dalam 100 Years of Pithecanthropus: The Homo Erectus Problem, disunting oleh J.L. Frunzen, 123- 128. Frankfurt: Courier Forschungs-Institut Senckenberg.

Matsu’ura, S. 1982. “A Chronological Framing for The Sangiran Hominids.” Bulletin of the National Science Museum Series D: Anthropology 8:1-53.

___________. 1985. “A Consideration of The Stratigraphic Horizons of Hominid Finds from Sangiran by the Fluorine Method.” Dalam Quaternary Geology of The Hominid Fossils Bearing Formations in Java, disunting oleh N. Watanabe dan D. Kadar, 359-366. Geological Research and Development Centre, Special Publication No. 4.

Middleton, J. 1844. “On Fluorine in Bones, Its Source, and Its Application to The Determination of The Geological Age of Fossil Bones.” Proceedings of the Geological Society 4:431-433.

Pringgoprawiro, H. 1983. “Biostratigrafi dan Paleogeografi Cekungan Jawa Timur Utara: Suatu Pendekatan Baru.” Disertasi Doktor, Institut Teknologi Bandung.

Schurr, M.R. 1989. “Fluoride Dating of Prehistoric Bones by Ion Selective Electrode.” Journal of Archaeological Science 16:265-270.

Schurr, M.R., dan D.A. Gregory. 2002. “Fluoride Dating on Faunal Materials by Ion-Selective Electrode: High Resolution Relative Dating at An Early Agricultural Period Site in The Tuason Basin.” American Antiquity 67:282-299.

Sighinolfi, G.P., S. Sartono, dan G. Artioli. 1993. “Chemical and Mineralogical Studies on Hominid Remains from Sangiran, Central Java (Indonesia).” Journal of Human Evolution 24:57-68.

Suzuki, M., Wikarno, Budisantoso, I. Saefudin, dan M. Itihara. 1985. “Fission Track Ages of Pumice Tuff, Tuff Layers and Javites of Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations in Sangiran Area, Central Java.” Dalam Quaternary Geology of The Hominid Fossils Bearing Formations in Java, disunting oleh N. Watanabe dan D. Kadar, 309-331. Geological Research and Development Centre, Special Publication No. 4.

Symonds, R.B., W .I. Rose, G. Bluth, dan T.M. Gerlach. 1994. “Volcanic Gas Studies: Methods, Results, and Applications.” Dalam “Volatiles in Magmas,” disunting oleh M.R. Carroll dan J.R. Holloway, Reviews in Mineralogy 30:1-66.

Yoshikawa, Y. dan Suminto. 1985. “Tuff Layers and Pumice Tuff Beds of The Pliocene and Pleistocene Sediments in The Sangiran Area.” Dalam Quaternary Geology of The Hominid Fossils Bearing Formations in Java, disunting oleh N. Watanabe dan D. Kadar, 97- 104. Geological Research and Development Centre, Special Publication No. 4.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/fa.v27i3.30

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.