JEJAK AUSTRONESIA DI SITUS GUA GEDE, PULAU NUSA PENIDA, BALI

Ati Rati Hidayah

Abstract


The spread of Austronesian-speaking people to Southeast Asia and the Pacific Island happened about 3.500- 4.000 years ago through some routes. Nusa Penida Island located at a strategic place, at the edge of western route to eastern route or vice versa. So that, it is interesting to be studied. This research aims to trace the trail of Austronesian speakers occupancy in Gua Gede Site. The research method uses pottery residue analysis and context of the overall findings quantity. The finding of pottery at Gua Gede Site indicates the existence of Austronesian speakers at the site. Gua Gede was occupied by Austronesia speakers around 3.051±25 BP. Based on the result of the pottery residue analysis, plant utilization had been done and there was indication of subsistence alteration from hunting and food gathering to simple farming.

 

Penyebaran penutur Austronesia ke wilayah Kepulauan Asia Tenggara dan Kepulauan Pasifik berkisar antara 3.500-4.000 tahun yang lalu melalui beberapa jalur. Pulau Nusa Penida terletak di wilayah yang strategis di ujung perbatasan jalur barat menuju ke timur atau sebaliknya, sehingga menarik untuk diteliti. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat adanya jejak penghunian Situs Gua Gede oleh Penutur Austronesia. Metode penelitian menggunakan analisis residu gerabah dan konteks kuantitas temuan secara keseluruhan. Temuan gerabah di Situs Gua Gede mengindikasikan adanya penghunian penutur Austronesia di situs tersebut. Gua Gede dihuni oleh penutur Austronesia pada 3.051±25BP. Berdasarkan dari hasil analisis residu gerabah, telah dilakukan pemanfaatan tumbuhan dan terdapat indikasi perubahan subsistensi dari berburu dan mengumpulkan makanan menjadi bercocoktanam sederhana.


Keywords


Gua Gede; Gerabah; Phytolith; Jejak Austronesia.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aziz, Fadhila Arifin. 1995. “Situs Gilimanuk (Bali) Sebagai Pilihan Lokasi Penguburan Pada Awal Masehi.” Berkala Arkeologi XV:43-46.

Bellwood, Peter. 2007. Prehistory of the Indo- Malaysian Archipelago. Revised Edition. Canberra: ANU E Press.

_____. 2006. “The Early Movements of Austronesian-Speaking Peoples in The Indonesian Region.” Dalam Austronesian Diaspora and The Ethnogenesis of People in Indonesisa Archipelago: Proceeding of the International Symposium, disunting oleh Truman Simanjuntak, Ingrid H.E. Pojoh, dan Mohammad Hisyam, 61-82. Jakarta: LIPI Press.

Bellwood, Peter, James J. Fox, dan Tryon Darrel. 2006. “The Austronesians History: Common Origins and Diverse Transformations.” Dalam The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, disunting oleh Peter Bellwood, James J. Fox, dan Tryon Darrel, 1-16. Canberra: Australian National University E Press.

Bowdery, Doreen. 1999. “Phytolith From Tropical Sediments.” Indo Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 18 (2): 159-168.

Chambers, Geoffrey K. 2006. “Polynesian Genetic and Austronesian Prehistory.” Dalam Austronesian Diaspora and The Ethnogenesis of People in Indonesisa Archipelago: Proceeding of the International Symposium, disunting oleh Truman Simanjuntak, Ingrid H.E. Pojoh, dan Mohammad Hisyam, 299- 318. Jakarta: LIPI Press.

Gede, Dewa Kompiang. 2015. “Penelitian di Situs Gua Gede, Nusa Penida Bali.” Laporan Penelitian Arkeologi, Balai Arkeologi Denpasar, Denpasar.

Hadiwidjojo, M.M. Purbo, H. Samodra, dan T.C. Amin. 1998. Peta Geologi Lembar Bali, Nusa Tenggara. Edisi Kedua. Bandung: Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan.

Hidayah, Ati Rati. 2017. “Pemanfaatan Kerang dan Tumbuhan di Situs Gua Gede Pulau Nusa Penida, Bali.” Tesis, Program Studi Arkeologi, Fakultas Ilmu Budaya, Universitas Gadjah Mada.

_____. 2010. “Situs Gua Gede Nusa Penida dalam Kerangka Hunian Prasejarah di Indonesia.” Forum Arkeologi XXIII (2): 332-354.

Oppenheimer, Stephen. 2006. “The ‘Austronesian’ Story and Farming Language Dispersals Caveats on Timing and Independence in Proxy Lines of Evidence from the Indo-European Model.” Dalam Uncovering Southeast Asia’s Past, disunting oleh Elisabeth A. Bacus, Ian C. Glover, dan Vincent E Piggot, 65-73. Singapore: NUS Press.

Piperno, Dolores. R. 2006. Phytoliths: A Comprehensive Guide for Archaeologists and Paleoecologists. Oxford: Altamira Press.

Sathiamurthy, Edlic dan Harold K. Voris. 2006. “Maps of Holocene Sea Level Transgresion and Submerged Lakes on the Sunda Shelf.” The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 2:1-44.

Simanjuntak, Truman. 2017. “The Western Route Migration: A Second Probable Neolithic Diffusion to Indonesia.” Terra Australis 45:201-212.

Solheim, Wilhelm G. 1984/1985. “Nusantao Hypotesis: The Origin and Spread of Austronesian Speakers.” Asian Perspectives 26 (1): 77-88.

Suastika, I Made. 2003. “Perkakas Batu dalam Hunian Gua Gede, Nusa Penida.” Forum Arkeologi, no. II: 1-14.

_____. 2005. “Penelitian Situs Gua Gede, Menapak Kehidupan Gua di Nusa Penida, Bali.” Laporan Penelitian Arkeologi, Balai Arkeologi Denpasar, Denpasar.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/fa.v30i1.159

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.